Saints Cosmas and Damian performing a miraculous cure by transplantation of a leg/The Master of Los Balbases.I’ve previously posted on regulatory T cells (TRegs) and their potential role in transplants. Briefly, TRegs are capable of specifically shutting off immune responses to particular antigens; they’re normal components of an immune system. TRegs can be damaging in some contexts — for example, in cancer, where it seems that TRegs often shut off immune responses to tumors, so that the tumor can escape immune clearance; and they can be beneficial in other context — for example, in some persistent virus infections, where a chronic immune response would be damaging, TRegs apparently modulate the immune response so that the virus persists but doesn’t cause severe damage.

There are a couple of obvious scenarios where it would be nice to be able to control TRegs. There’s a lot of interest in reducing TReg activity in cancer, such as with CTLA4 antagonists. There’s also a lot of interest in increasing TReg activity in organ transplants, and there have actually been a couple of cases where it’s seemed to have worked.

A recent paper in PNAS1 offers steps toward a more general procedure, that could in theory lead to controlled, planned generation of TRegs for any antigen.

A key aspect of TRegs is that they are antigen-specific. They don’t randomly suppress immune responses; they identify particular antigens that should be tolerated, and shut off immunity to those antigens. That allows fine control over the response, but it also makes it harder to catch a TReg; T cells (not just TRegs) that recognize any particular antigen are very rare events, hiding in a blizzard of other specificities. What if you could force T cells for an antigen you choose to enter the TReg pathway?

Regulatory T cells (J Clin Invest cover)This has already been done, in fact, but in a very artificial system — in mice with transgenic T cell receptors. These mice overwhelmingly express a single TcR in all of their T cells — there’s no snowflake in a blizzard problem, because the entire blizzard is made of identical flakes. Harold von Boehmer’s group has shown that you can drive these transgenic T cells into the TReg pathway by offering very, very low levels of antigen, under defined conditions, over a long period. 2 The recent paper1 shows that you can do the same thing in normal, non-transgenic, mice; and by doing this you can force graft tolerance. (They used female mice and drove tolerance to the male antigen H-Y antigen. The tolerized female mice then became tolerant of male grafts, while the control female mice rejected the male grafts.)

The key, at least for this particular protocol, seems to be to use very low dose antigen and “suboptimal” conditions (where “optimal” refers to conditions that drive conventional immune responses. The vocabulary of immune responses is really kind of misleading, because it’s focused on easily-measured responses like protection against viruses or graft rejection. Regulatory T cell responses are just as active, and probably are just about as common and important, but it’s hard to talk about them without giving the impression that they’re somehow passive, or abnormal, or defective).

One problem with moving this into the clinic is that you would need to know what the target antigen is, which in an outbred population like humans you do not know a priori. However, as bioinformatic and experimental techniques for identifying antigen peptides improve, it may become more practical to run this for patients before their transplants. The potential payoff would be very high, because you might be able to remove immunosuppression altogether:

If a procedure as simple as peptide infusion, which permits de novo induction of Tregs from mature T cells, prevents transplant rejection or GVHD, it could offer a realistic opportunity to induce tolerance to a variety of antigens such as allergens, transplantation antigens, and antigens causing autoimmunity while minimizing undesirable side effects often associated with general immunosuppression.


  1. Verginis, P., McLaughlin, K.A., Wucherpfennig, K.W., von Boehmer, H., Apostolou, I. (2008). Induction of antigen-specific regulatory T cells in wild-type mice: Visualization and targets of suppression. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(9), 3479-3484. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0800149105[][]
  2. Kretschmer, K., Apostolou, I., Hawiger, D., Khazaie, K., Nussenzweig, M. C., and von Boehmer, H. (2005). Inducing and expanding regulatory T cell populations by foreign antigen. Nat Immunol 6, 1219-1227.
    Apostolou, I., and von Boehmer, H. (2004). In vivo instruction of suppressor commitment in naive T cells. J Exp Med 199, 1401-1408.[]