City Health Detroit 1920
In 1920 there was an outbreak of smallpox in Detroit (see the map below). Of the 133 cases with known history, only two had been vaccinated in the previous 10 years — three others had been vaccinated 12, 60, and 80 (!) years previously; the remainder were unvaccinated. The Detroit Department of Health had this commentary (my emphasis):

Using Knowledge

How quickly we forget the ravages of disease! In the autumn of 1918 the world was visited by the worst plague of recent times — influenza. Probably 1 per cent of the population of the globe was swept away by this scourge. People raved and bewailed at their helplessness. There was no known preventative. We know that crowding aided this disease, but as a reliable preventive against influenza, telling a person to avoid crowds in a congested city has about as much effect as telling a fly to keep out of baby’s cup of milk.

In 1920 influenza returned and exacted further toll of lives. The previous epidemic had not produced an antidote nor a preventative of influenza. The bacteriologists have not been idle. They have worked industriously trying to discover the true cause of the disease and a means of immunizing against it. It is not to their discredit that their efforts have not met with success.

Smallpox is another matter. Jenner, an English physician, proved beyond a shadow of a doubt that material from a pox pustule in a cow when added to the scarified skin of human beings gave them immunity against smallpox. This was in 1796. Vaccination soon became universal.

Boston’s experience is interesting. In 1721 out of a population of 11,000 there were 5,989 cases of smallpox and 850 deaths. In 1730 in a population of 15,000 there were 4,000 cases and 509 deaths. After vaccination had been introduced the disease practically disappeared. From 1811 to 1830 there were but 14 cases. Smallpox has disappeared where compulsory vaccination is in effect.

We do not know how to immunize against influenza.

We do know how to immunize against smallpox.

Shall we utilize this knowledge or not? If not why continue to search for an influenza panacea? If it is not to be used, once discovered, why waste time and effort to discover it? 1

See also earlier posts:

Smallpox in Detroit - map, 1920


  1. City Health. Monthly Bulletin, Detroit Department of Health.  May 1920. Vol. III, No. 8[]