HapMap 3, officially announced in today’s issue of Nature,1 is an “integrated data set of common and rare alleles” in human populations, built from “1.6 million common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 1,184 reference individuals from 11 global populations“. 

As well as being a resource for genome-wide studies, there are a number of things that can be done with the data directly. One of those is to help identify regions that are under positive natural selection. The authors found a number of them, including several immune-related genes in the Kenyan population.

A little sadly for me, none of these genes are ones I’m particularly familiar with. The three that are listed are:

  • CD226.  This is an activating NK cell receptor. An allelic variant in CD226 has been linked to a number of autoimmune diseases,2 so it wouldn’t be surprising to learn that it’s under some form of selection.  I didn’t check the actual SNP that was shown to be selected, to see if it’s the same one that’s linked to autoimmunity.

  • ITGAE.  This is an integrin3 that’s apparently involved in lymphocyte trafficking.  Allelic variants in ITGAE have been linked to a number of diseases including sarcoidosis4 and ischemic stroke.5

  • DPP7 is dipeptidyl-peptidase 7.  Although I’ve had a strong interest in peptidases for a while6 because of their influence on MHC class I antigen presentation, DPP7 seems to have an unrelated role, that of preventing apoptosis of resting lymphocytes. I don’t know of any links between DPP7 and disease, but obviously altering lymphocyte survival could impact lots of things. 

I’m sure that any more immune-related genes are under strong selection — we know that MHC genes are very strongly and rapidly selected, for example — but they don’t necessarily send up flags in this sort of analysis. 


  1. The International HapMap 3 Consortium (2010). Integrating common and rare genetic variation in diverse human populations Nature, 47, 52-58 DOI: 10.1038/nature09298[]
  2. Douroudis K, Kingo K, Silm H, Reimann E, Traks T, Vasar E, & Kõks S (2010). The CD226 Gly307Ser gene polymorphism is associated with severity of psoriasis. Journal of dermatological science, 58 (2), 160-1 PMID: 20399620

    Maiti AK, Kim-Howard X, Viswanathan P, Guillén L, Qian X, Rojas-Villarraga A, Sun C, Cañas C, Tobón GJ, Matsuda K, Shen N, Cherñavsky AC, Anaya JM, & Nath SK (2010). Non-synonymous variant (Gly307Ser) in CD226 is associated with susceptibility to multiple autoimmune diseases. Rheumatology (Oxford, England), 49 (7), 1239-44 PMID: 20338887[]

  3. Intergrins are cell-surface molecules often involved in cell-cell interactions[]
  4. Heron M, Grutters JC, Van Moorsel CH, Ruven HJ, Kazemier KM, Claessen AM, & Van den Bosch JM (2009). Effect of variation in ITGAE on risk of sarcoidosis, CD103 expression, and chest radiography. Clinical immunology (Orlando, Fla.), 133 (1), 117-25 PMID: 19604725[]
  5. Luke MM, O’Meara ES, Rowland CM, Shiffman D, Bare LA, Arellano AR, Longstreth WT Jr, Lumley T, Rice K, Tracy RP, Devlin JJ, & Psaty BM (2009). Gene variants associated with ischemic stroke: the cardiovascular health study. Stroke; a journal of cerebral circulation, 40 (2), 363-8 PMID: 19023099[]
  6. Pubmed link to my peptidase papers[]